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Liaocheng

2014/4/15 12:05:27   source:en.sdfao.gov.cn

  Climate

  Located in warm climates, Liaocheng has obvious season change and monsoon climate, belonging to semi-humid continental climate. The continentality is between 62.8 and 64.8 with the annual dryness between 1.7 and 1.9.Liaocheng has a clear distinction between the four seasons with obvious difference to dry and wet season and sufficent sunlight as well as rain and heat synchronization and uneven distribution of time and space for rainfall.The basic characteristics of four seasons is represented drought and more wind in Spring, heat and more rain in Summer,easy to drought in late Autumn as well as dry and cold in Winter.The time of sunshine every year is between 2463 hours and 2740.8 hours and the average rate of sunshine every year is between 56% and 62%.Its distribution trend increases little by little from southwest to northeast, shenxian at least, chiping most. Throughout a whole year,the hours of sunshine of the spring and summer are most and winter at least.The average sunshine hours in May and June is between 521 hours and 578 hours,accounting for around 21% of the whoe year.The average sunshine hours of one day is between 8.4 hours and 9.4 hours.The average temperature degree is between 12.8℃ and 13.4℃ in Liaocheng and the temperature increases little by little from northwest to southeast.The lowest average temperature degree is 12.8℃ in Linqing and the highest one is 13.4℃ in Dong’e.The lowest monthly temperature is in January between 2.2 below zero degree and 3.3 below zero and the highest is in July between 26.5℃ and 26.8 ℃.The annual lowest average temperature is between 7.6℃ and 8.4℃ and the annual highest ones is between 19.1℃ and 19.4℃.Annual rainfall is between 567.7mm and 637.3 mm and the rainfall of eastern and western is more than west and northwest. The most rainfall is in Dong’e County up for at least 637.3 mm and Gaotang County at least,only 567.7 mm. There is a bigger difference in annual precipitation.The most is in Chiping County in 1961 up for 1004.7 1 mm, at least 273.0 mm in Linqing in 1972.In 1950 and 1990s, the first day of frost (taking the days below zero degress in the surface of earth as the index)occured between October 24th and 28th , the earliest day is in October 6th in Guangxian County and the the latest day in November 22nd in Chiping County.The average days of nonforest is between 193 days and 201 days and the longest time is 227 days in Guanxian County and Dong’e County,the shortest is 167 days in Linqing County.The annual average relative humidity is between 56% and 68%,increasing little by little from north to south. The maximum of the humidity is between 81% and 82% in August and the minimum is in May between 55% and 59%.In Liaocheng there is more south and southerly wind with the frequence is between 15% and 20%.The annual average wind speed is between 3.2 meter per second and 3.7 meter per second and the wind speed is the fastest in Spring up to 4.1 meter per second and 4.6 meter per second.

  Natural resource

  The natural resources land resources. The land areas of the city is 8590 square kilometers, among which there are 556200 hectares cultivated farmlands accounting for 73.6% of the total areas of lands with per capita area of cultivated farmland much more than Shandong and throught the country.The used land areas ammount to 834000 hectares accounting for 96.5% of the total areas of Liaocheng.According to grading standards of national land productivity, , there is no first-level lands and 168900 hectares of second-level lands accounting for 24.2% of usable land areas and 318900 hectares of third-level lands accounting for 45.5% and 156000 hectares of fourth-level lands and 54000 hectares of fifth level land accounting for 8%.The distribution of water is unbalanced in Liaocheng and ther are much water along the Yellow river in the east and southeast areas and scarce water in west and northwest areas.Ground water resource, the average rainfall is 566.7 mm in many years with total water yield of 487 million cubic meters.Of which are formed surface runoff of 369 million cubic meters,entering into Tuhaihe river, Majiahe river, Weiyunhe river or prevented by graffs and left before the watergates supplying the underground water of 981 million cubic meters,in which most of the rest is converted to soil water and is used up for spontaneous evaporation.With relatively rich water of the rivers passing through Liaocheng such as the Yellow River, Jindi river, Weiyunhe river,etc.,with average run-off of rivers of 36.622 billion cubic meters many years,of which is 34.958 billion cubic meters of the Yellow river accounting for 95.45% of run-off of rivers along Liaocheng.Groundwater resources, the geohydrologic conditions of the shallow groundwater in the city are good.Besides freshwater widely distributed in the city, there are still brackish water and fresh water distributing alternatively,forming the water chemical vertical zoning of salty and fresh, fresh,salty and fresh as well as entire fresh styles structure. The areas of fresh water account for 93.1% of the total area of water distribution.The average total water use volumns many years are 2.297 billion cubic meters of which is local water resource ammounting to 772 million cubic meters including 26 million cubic meters of surface run-off and 746 million cubic meters of groundwater with 1.525 billion cubic meters of usable water resource of the rivers along the city.Mineral resources are mainly coal, oil, natural gas, gypsum, limestone, drinking water and hotspring water, etc. Coal YangGu - chiping coalfield, 2297.6 square kilometers, are predicted the coal(E+F)reserves 21.7 billion tons. The coalfield is located below 1000 meters under the ground featuring wide shallow coal bed distribution, plenty coal beds, thick coal beds and rich reserves as well as high quality coal and simple hydrogeological condition ,awarded one of major breakthrough projects of national general minerals. In addition, there is Dongchangfu District Coalfield ,the typical coalfield of Anthracolithic system in north China.There are 8 stories Coal mining layers,partially 3 stories.According to the shallow coal seam below 1100 m under ground, grade C coal reserves ammount to 344 million tons and grade D coal reserves ammount to 942 million tons. Oil and gas reservoir distribut in most parts of Shenxian County and Gaotang County as well as in the center of Dongchangfu District and Linqing county-level city, the west of Chiping County and the east of Guanxian County.Among them, the oil source rockthickness of Shanbu oil region of Zhongyuan Oilfield is about 700 and 800 meters.There are 30 million tons of oil reserves and 1 trillion cubic meters of natural gas reserves.No.3 factory of Zhongyuan oilfield is located in this area including 330 oilers, 2 gas wells, with an annual output of 1 million tons of crude oil, associated gas of 100 million cubic meters.The depressed oil resource area of Shenxian County has an area of 2600 square meters, 433.3 billion cubic meters of oil resource rocks and top roof depth of 1118 and 1439 meters and the oil resource rock thickness of over 1389 and 1771 meters.The depressed oil resource area of Guanxian County has an area of 1100 square meters, top roof depth of 1688 meters, the oil resource rock thickness of about 2000 meters and 211.7 million cubic meters in volumn.In 1989, Jia NO.2 exploratory shaft was dug by the drilling team of Shengli Oilfield near Liangzha village, Liangshui Town of Dongchangfu District.The 7 meters thickness of oil and gas layer was found below 2400 meters under the shaft.Moreover, the 15 meters thickness of high quality oil and gas layer was also found below 2674 and 2689 meters under the shaft.

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