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2014/4/15 12:05:27

  Natural conditions


  The southwest terrain of Liaocheng is relatively higher and the northeast is lower with average gradient of 1:7500 and the altitude between 22.8 and 47.8 meters. The highest point of the terrain is in southwest Shenxian County with the altitude of 49 meters and the lowest one is in northeast Gaotang County with the altitude of 27.5 meters.There are 6 types of landforms including274800 hectares of river beach and high land covering 31.8% of total areas of Liaocheng,30900 hectares of crevasse splay covering 3.6%, 378700 hectares of flat slope covering 43.8%, 70800 hectares of shallow niaye covering 8.2%, 45000 hectares of groove-shaped niaye of anticlinal river covering 5.2% and 35000 hectares of river groove of sandiness covering 4.1%.In addition, there are more than 10 50-meter high limestone buttes with areas of 28000 hectares covering 3.3 % of total area of Liaocheng,including Weishan Hill, Guanshan Hill, Shanshan Hill,Jiashan Hill, Yushan Hill, Qushan Hill, Xiangshan Hill,Aishan Hill, Zhangshan Hill and Lingshan Hill Geology

  The geological strcture of Liaocheng is part of the North China platform(I). Liaocheng-Lankao riftzone divides Liaocheng into 2 second level tectonic units,The west unit is Liaoji syneclise(Ⅱ1) and the east one is Luxi anticlise(Ⅱ2).There are two third level tectonic units in Liaoji syneclise including Linqing down-warping faulted region(Ⅲ1)and Neihuang upwarping faulted zone (Ⅲ2). And there is one third level tectonic units in Luxi anticlise,that is Chiping down-warping faulted zone(Ⅲ3).Then, there are seven fourth level tectonic units from west to east of Liaocheng including Guantao raised zone (Ⅳ1),Linqing depressed zone (Ⅳ2),Xinji raised zone(Ⅳ3),Shenxian depressed zone(Ⅳ4),Sang’e raised zone(Ⅳ5),Yanggu raised zone(Ⅳ6) and Dong’e depressed zone(Ⅳ7).


  In Liaocheng, the main rivers include the Yellow River , Jidi river, Tuhai river, Majia river, Weiyunhe river and Xiaoyunhe river and so on. ALL rivers abovementioned belong to the water system of Haihe river except the Yellow river and Jindi river.There is often running water in the Yellow river and Weiyunhe river while Tuhai river.,Majia river and Jindi river are seasonable. The Yellow river flows into Liaocheng in Zhangzhuang of Taiqian County of Henan Province and out Liaocheng in Liying of Dong’e County.The length of the Yellow river in Liaocheng is 59.51 kilometers and the drainage area of the Yellow river is 29 square kilometers.Jingdi river runs into Liaocheng in Gaodikou of Shenxian County and flows into the Yellow river again in Zhangzhuang watergate via Taochengpu of Yanggu County.The length of Jidihe river along Liaocheng is 83.4 kilometers and the average width of the river is 260 meters and the drainage area of the river is 93 square kilometers. After Weiyunhe river, Zhanghe river and Weihe river collect, the river is called Weiyunhe river.Weiyunhe river enters into Liaocheng in Banzhuang of Guangxian County and out Liaocheng in the north of Quanzhuang of Shicao Town of Linqing County.The length of the main stream of the river along Liaocheng is 74.52 kilometers with the main branches such as Changshunqu and Chezhuanggou ,etc. with the drainage area of 485.6 square kilometers.Majiahe river was one of nine rivers dredged by Yu, an Emperor in ancient time. The name of the river was from the horse cheek-shape of river tunnel The river flows into Liaocheng in Shawang village of Dongduzhuang Town of Shenxian County and into Xiajin County in Dongguqiao of Liangchun Town of Gaotang County.The length of the river in Liaocheng is 123.24 kilometers and the drainage area of the river is 2870.8 square kilometers.Tuhaihe river flows from Wenmingzai of Guyun Town of Shenxian County and runs out Liaocheng in Liji of Guhe Town of Gaotang County. The length of the river is 169.25 kilometers. The main branches of the river include Jinxianhe river, Sixinhe river, Yangjiaohe river, Zhaowanghe river, Qilihe river, Guanshihe river and Zhaoniuhe river,etc.The drainage area of the river is 5189.1 square kilometers.The section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal in Liaocheng is called Xiaoyunhe river flowing into Liaocheng in Zhangqiu Town of Yanggu County and into Weiyunhe river in Linqing County.At present,the river is applied to be a channel connecting the Yellow river to irrigate fields and drain the flood water .The length of the river in Liaocheng is 97.5 kilometers and now the section from Zhangqiu watergate to the connecting with Zhaowanghe river is available.The available river length is 39.26 kilometers and the drainage area is 285 square kilometers.


  Dongchang lake is located in Liaocheng, alias Huangcheng lake or Fengcheng lake with the total area of 4.2 square kilometers, slightly less than the area of West lake of Hangzhou, and a rare artificial lake in North China.After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the lake was often managed with 1-2 meters depth water year by year for fresh water aquaculture abounding fish and shrimp.In 1973,after renamed "around the lake",the lake was developed and constructed. The pillar inside the lake,the fishing base and bamboo house,etc. were built successively and some yatches were provided .At the end of 1995 renamed "DongChangHu".The Chengquan lake of Gaotang County aliasChenghuan lake,with almost one thousand Chinese mu of total area accounts for half of the area of the inside city.The lake is composed of Southeast lake, Southwest lake, Northeast lake and Northwest lake. The arch bridge is the boundary of the northeast lake and the Northwest lake ,by which four pavilions are built.The bottom of the lake is flat and the depth of the lake water is about one meter year by year abounding fish and root of lotus as well as reed.


  The soil includes four types of brown soil, moist soil, salt soil and wind sand soil as well as ten subtypes,25 soil genuses and 104 soil species.The area of Brown soil type is 29 hectares, accounting for 0.004% of total area of Liaocheng soil. The area of moist soil type is 657000 hectares ,the largest area in the soil types of the city,accounting for 93.9% of the total area of the city.The area of salt soil is 15000 hectares,accounting for 2.2% of the total area of city soil. The area of wind and sand soil type is 27000 hectares accounting for 3.9% of the total area of the city soil.


  In Liaocheng, there is few natural vegetation except shrubbery of 640 hectares accounting for 0.074%distributing in the sand dune of the old tunnel of Yellow river.The vegetation of surface on earth mostly composes crop,tame high forest, farmland forest net,economic wood and secondary woody plant community.The original forest coverage rate accounts for 9.1%.

  Forest coverage rate is increased to 13.7%,16.6%,18.9% and 19% respectively in 1990, 1994, 1996 and 1998.


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