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Zibo

2014/4/15 10:35:42   source:en.sdfao.gov.cn

  Organizational system and Administrative Division

  【Realm】Zibo is located in the middle of Shandong Province, at 117°32′~118°31′ E and 35°56′~37°18′ N, bordering Weifang on the east, Yimeng Mountains on the south, Jinan(the capital of Shandong Province)on the west, North China Plain on the north. It has a geographical feature of north-south strip, and the largest distance from north to south is 151km, from east to west is 87km, with an area of 5938km2.

  【Historical Course】In August 1945, Zibo Special Administrative Region(SAR) was established, which set up Commissioner's Office subordinate to the Middle Shandong Administrative Region. In July 1949, Zibo Industrial SAR was established, which developed into Zibo Subprovincial Administrative Region in May 1950 and Zibo Industrial SAR in 1953. In March 1955, Zibo changed to city. In January 1959, Zibo and Huimin merged to form Zibo Subprovincial Administrative Region. Zibo got the name of Zibo Special Municipality. In January 1961, Zibo and Huimin were divided, and Zibo reverted to provincially administered municipality, the cityhall moved from Boshan district to Zhangdian district.

  【Administrative Division】Zibo governs 5 districts (Zhangdian, Zichuan, Boshan, Linzi and Zhoucun) and 3 counties (Huantai, Gaoqing and Yiyuan). Under the city set 74 towns, 8 townships, 24 sub-district offices.

  【Population】In 2009, the total population of the city is 4.21 million and the total number of households is 1.42 million, among which more than 1.9 million are in the city proper. The ratio of male to female is 101.17∶100. The natural population growth rate is 2.35‰, with birth rate 8.79‰ and death rate 6.44‰.

  【Ethnic groups】Zibo belongs to inhabited, scattered and mixed ethnic minority area. It has 44 minorities with the population of 27,000, which makes up 0.63% of the city's total, including nationalities of Mongol, Hui, Tibetan, Uyghur, Hmong, Yi, Zhuang, Bouyei, Korean, Manchu, Dong, Yao, Bai, Tujia, Hani, Dai, Li, Lisu, Va, She, Lahu, Shui, Dongxiang, Naxi, Tu, Daur, Qiang, Brown, Xibe, Pumi, and Dulong, among which the Hui nationality consists of 18,894 people, Mongols 2846, Manchu 2052. The city has an ethnic town named Jinling Hui Ethnic Community of Linzi District, which is one of the four Ethnic Communities of Shandong province. Zibo also has 10 Ethnic Villages (Residence), making up of 9 Hui Villages and 1 Mongol Village.

  Natural Conditions

  【Landform】Zibo is located in the transition zone between Middle Shandong Highland and the North China Plain. As a whole, it is a graben basin with closed Height in the South, the East and West wings towering above, the central part laying low and pitching to the north. The southern part is erosion area of low mountains, covering 45.4% of total area, the central part being hilly transitional zone and covering 14.1%, the northern part being plain sedimentation area and covering 40.5%. As the highest point of the southern part, Mt. Lu is 1108.3 m above sea level, while the north plain, being the lowest point, is only 5 meters above sea level. The terrain has a feature of south high north low-lying with a drop height of more than one thousand meters.

  【Geology】Located in the North China platform, the western Shandong platform pitches to the north, at the northern edge of the central Shandong upwarping faulted zone, which forms an oblique structure called “Zibo Syncline”. The base is the ancient Sinian metamorphic rocks consolidated 2.2 billion years ago, which is covered with Cambrian, Ordovician, Shiyan system, Permian system, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary and the fourth strata. The structural feature is the gentle stretching and folding that are not well developed. In addition to a higher level outside Zibo syncline, the other systems accompany Zibo syncline by some secondary small folds. The regional fault structure is more developed, especially for the normal faults which recorded vertical and horizontal cutting. Magmatic rocks, mainly including Jinling complex body of diorite, Kunlun gabbro, Taihe rocks, and rocks of Baiyun Mountain, etc. are widely distributed and show features of several phases of movement.

  【Mountains】Zibo has 1 mountain over 1,000 meters above sea level, 17 middle mountains about 800-1000 meters, more than 300 low mountains about 500-800 meters.

  【Rivers】Bounded by Mt. Lu, the southward Yi River and its tributaries belong to Huai River, and the northward flow belongs to Xiaoqing River. Yellow River: of which the west enters from Zouping, the east exits from Dongjiaji, with a cisborder span of 53.2 km, the main slot of the river covers 350 to 600 meters width and the beach trough gap is 3 to 4 meters, both of which change with erosion and siltation. The main channel average elevation is higher than the land, with individual locations more than 3 m above, forming a “hanging river”. Xiaoqing River: of which the west inflows from Zouping county, enters Boxing county from the southeast of Gaocheng town, with a cisborder span of 46.4 km, 30 meters wide and 3.5 meters deep. The capacity of water flowing from dam is 230 cubic meters / second, and the drainage capacity is 120 cubic meters / second. Zi River: of which the ancient name is Zi water, it originated from the northern foothills of Mt. Lu, flowing through Boshan, Zichuan, Linzi District, entering Guangrao County from the north, with a cisborder span of 112.5 km, drainage area 993 square kilometers, river width from 20 to 1000 meters. Xiaofu River: of which the main stream begins at the Shentou spring group of Boshan district. Upon it there are two tributaries called Yueyang River and Poplar River, flowing northward through Zichuan, Zhangdian, Zhoucun, Zouping, Huantai, across the Mata lake inflowing the Xiaoqing River in Boxing county, with a cisborder span of 108.6 km and drainage area 1441.8 square kilometers. It has numerous tributaries, of which the left bank has Fan Yang and Gangou rivers, etc. while the right bank has Banyang, Mansi, Xizhulong rivers, etc. Wu River: originates from the southern foothills of Linzi district, flows through Huantai county into Boxing county, covers a cisborder span of 50.5 km, with width of 20-50 meters and drainage area of 483 square kilometers. Yi River: it originates from four sources called Xujiazhuang river, Dazhang river, Nanyan river and Gaocun river, of which the main source is from Xujiazhuang river (with length of 23.5 km) at the northern foot of Mt. Xiaohei in southwest of Yiyuan Dragon Village, with four sources meeting in Tianzhuang reservoir. The main channel of Yi River flows southeast from the Tianzhuang reservoir to Yishui county, with a cisborder span of 84.6km and drainage area of 1451 square kilometers, the widest point of the river bed 800 meters, the narrowest over 100 hundred meters.

  【Lakes】Mata lake is located in Huantai county, while Dalu lake and Aili lake in Gaoqing county.

  【Soil】covers an area of 517,400 hectares of soil, which can be divided into 5 sub-soil classes. Brown soil has 70,400 hectares, accounting for 13.6% of the total, which mainly distributes in the southern mountains, and the fertility is different that is suitable for pine, pinus densiflora, quercus and other plants’ growth. Cinnamon soil has 323,400 hectares, accounting for 62.5% of the total, which mainly distributes in places of Zichuan, Boshan, Yiyuan, etc. It is the main soil type within borders that has strong ability of water and fertilizer retention, and is suitable for a variety of crops. Shajiang soil has 38,800 hectares, accounting for 7.5% of the total, mainly distributes in the northern plains. Since the soil is deep, it is appropriate for crops of many kinds. Chao soil has 83,800 hectares, accounting for 16.2%, mainly distributes in Gaoqing and Huantai counties, and along the river in Yiyuan county there is a small distribution. This kind of soil is easy waterlogged. Saline soil has 1,040 hectares, accounting for 0.2%, mainly distributes along the Yellow River in Gaoqing county.

  【Climate】lies in eastern warm and humid monsoon climate zone, characterized by four distinct seasons, and rainy season coincided with high temperature. In 2008, the average annual temperature was 13.9 ℃, with the highest 37.6 ℃ in July and the minimum -16 ℃ in January. The average annual precipitation is 685.2 mm, generally increasing from north to south. The daily maximum rainfall is 125.7 mm and annual maximum 1616.7 mm (1964 in Yiyuan), with the annual sunshine of 2043 hours and yearly frost-free period of 240 days, and the average annual wind speed of 2.6 to 3.3 m / s.

  【Natural Disasters】The disasters are mainly droughts, thunderstorms, strong winds, hail, frost, tornado, lightning, etc, among which drought, hail, heavy rain damages are severe.

  【Natural Resources】1. Land Resources. The city has total land area of 5938 square kilometers, among which soil area 5174 km² with land utilization 78.47%. The city's agricultural land covers 4,161 square kilometers, while non-agricultural 827 square kilometers and unused land 95 km². In agricultural land, the cultivated area occupies 2018 square kilometers, forest area 1523 km² and orchard area of 62 km². Among the total land area, hills, waterlogged land, plain, wasteland, water plane, each make up 45.2%, 13.8%, 33.2%, 6.7%, 1.1%. In the soil area, there are mainly brown, cinnamon, lime concretion black soil, alluvial soil, saline soil, respectively accounting for 13.6%, 62.5%, 7.5%, 16.2%, 0.2%. 2. Biological Resources. The city has a wide range of biological resources. According to incomplete statistics, there are totally 615 biological families and 3,753 species, in which there are microbiology 151 families and 618 kinds; plants 156 families and 1,645 kinds; animals 308 families and 1,490 kinds. Valuable species include 30 kinds of edible fungi, 218 kinds of crop varieties, 421 species of woody plants, 778 kinds of medicinal plants, 415 kinds of forage plants, 102 species of aquatic animals and plants, 86 varieties of beats and birds, wild animals 240 varieties, 2165 kinds of pests and natural enemies. 3 / Water Resources. Water resources include surface water and groundwater. Precipitation is the main source of water supply. The city's average annual precipitation is 627.4 mm, equivalent to 3.136 billion cubic meters of resources, totally 1.411 billion cubic meters of water supply. There is 996 million cubic meters of groundwater. 4 / Mineral Resources. Zibo City is rich in varied mineral resources. 53 kinds of minerals have been found, and 22 kinds have been proved reserves exploited and used. Among the proved reserves minerals, mainly coal, iron, bauxite, refractory clay, limestone, ceramic earth, barite, rock type and other mineral resources, aluminum, cobalt, gold, silver and other rare and precious metals. There are also a lot of red mud, coal gangue, fly ash and other renewable resources. Many minerals have the features of large reverses, wide distribution, high grade, and occupy an important position in the province. Among them, bauxite reserves accounted for 90% of the province, refractory clay reserves accounted for 45.9% of the province, rich iron ore reserves accounted for 25% of the province, chemical limestone and ceramic soil is the main production of the province. 5 / Energy Resources. Zibo City is rich in oil and gas resources. Gaoqing oilfield is about 6.2 kilometers east and west and 9.3 km north and south, covers an area of 58 square kilometers. 7 sets of oil-bearing strata were found, including 14 oil blocks, which covers an area of 10.5 square kilometers, reserves 14.69 million tons. Jinjia oilfield covers an area of 110 square kilometers, and has 5 oil-bearing layers of total thickness of 10 meters to 28 meters with fixed oil area 22.7 square km, depth 200 meters to 1100 meters, reserves 31.71 million tons. In addition, there are Gaoqing Huagou gas field and others.

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