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Qingdao

2014/4/15 10:27:46   source:en.sdfao.gov.cn

  Transport & Communications

  Qingdao is a comprehensive transport hub of China. From the national Medium and Long-term Development Planning of Comprehensive Transport Network, we can see that Qingdao locates on the main artery of south-north coastal transport and on the main artery of east-west Qingdao-Lhasa transport, and on South Asian section of the international region transport channels. In the next few years, Qingdao will focus on the construction of Qingdao-Taiyuan passenger railway line, large-sized deepwater quay for specialized container and energy transportation of Qingdao port, the comprehensive transport hub jointed with expressway, passenger line and airport, goods collecting and distribution supporting system with Qingdao port as a hub to mainly improve the collection and distribution capacity of railway, expressway and pipeline in the rear, and railway container transshipment hub to promote inland multi-modal transport development. Qingdao will also actively promote the development of urban public traffic, and gradually construct urban track traffic network.

  Qingdao is an important international trade port and marine transportation hub on the western shores of the Pacific Ocean. In 2009, the port handled 317 million tons of cargoes (222 million tons of cargoes for foreign trade) and 10.28 million standard containers, ranking the seventh and ninth world’s largest ports respectively. Qingdao port, founded in 1892, has formed three ports, namely old Qingdao port, Huangdao oil port and Qianwan new port, and is building Dongjiakou port. It is a port mainly for loading and unloading containers, coal, crude oil, iron ore, food and other import and export goods and for international and domestic passenger service, and has established trade relationship with over 450 ports of more than 130 countries and regions in the world. Qingdao port has the world’s largest container dock where ships carrying 15,000 standard containers can be berthed, an ore dock where 300,000-ton super ships can be berthed, a crude oil dock and a coal dock for 100,000-ton ships. At present Qingdao port possesses 102 production berths including 66 above the 10,000-ton level, and the port handling capacity is 204 million tons. It has become a state-level port technology center.

  Qingdao Liuting International Airport reaches 4E standard. It has opened 96 airlines to more than 50 main Chinese cities, and 12 international (regional) passenger and cargo airlines to Tokyo and Osaka of Japan, Seoul and Busan of South Korea, Paris of France (via Shanghai), seven European countries (via Beijing) and China Hong Kong and China Taiwan, operating more than 1,800 flights each week. In 2009, it handled 9.66 million person-times, and 196,000 tons of cargo and mail, up 17.8% and 5.9 % respectively.

  Jiaozhou-Jinan Railway is a transport artery across Shandong connecting Qingdao with Jinan. It was started in 1897, completed and opened to traffic in 1904. The railway was electrified in 2006. In April 2007, it started to run bullet trains of 200 kilometers per hour; in July 2008, the 362.5-kilometer Jiaozhou-Jinan passenger railway line was put into normal operation and ran bullet trains of 250 kilometers per hour. It is also China’s first passenger railway line to be put into normal operation and opened to traffic. In November 2009, the speeds of all 22 pairs of bullet trains between Jinan and Qingdao were increased. It took 6.5 hours to travel by train from Qingdao to Jinan in the early 1990s; at present it takes about two hours. In 2009, the railway passenger turnover was 4.35 billion person-kilometers and the cargo turnover was 11.47 billion ton-kilometers, up 11.5% and 17% respectively.

  Qingdao has a developed highway network. By the end of 2009, its highway traffic mileage reached 16,000 kilometers. Qingdao possesses 11 expressways with a mileage of 703 kilometers, ranking first both in Shandong Province and in fifteen sub-provincial cities of China in terms of the number, mileage and density of expressways. It has realized “one-hour economic rim” in the city.

  Qingdao’s post and communications have also developed rapidly. In 2009, the postal service turnover rose 21.6% to 20.2 billion yuan. Network and information technology continued to be widely popularized and upgraded. The number of Internet users rose 9.2% to 1.641 million. The total telephone switchboard capacity reached 3.24 million lines, and fixed phone users totaled 2.942 million. As one of the first group of cities constructing TD experiment network, Qingdao’s mobile telephone users totaled 8.427 million, 1.942 million of which are new users. The communications capacities had been greatly expanded.

  Science, Education, Culture & Health

  Qingdao boasts its marine science and technology. Qingdao’s marine research institutions at or above provincial level take up over 30% in China, academicians on marine study account for 60% of the total across the country. The famous Ocean University of China, Institute of Oceanology of Chinese Academy of Sciences and other institutions are established here. The national deep-sea base and the National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology are under construction. Qingdao’s advanced marine scientific researchers take up about 30% in the whole country. The five industrial tides “fish, shrimp, shellfish, alga and sea cucumber” of Chinese sea-farming industry originated in Qingdao. The National 973 Program involves 17 projects of marine field, and the chief scientists and host units of 14 projects are in Qingdao. Since the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan”, the research institutions in Qingdao have been responsible for 46% of marine research subjects under the National 863 Project. So Qingdao has good foundation and prospect in the research, development, creativity and achievement transfer of marine biology, marine medicine and marine material. In 2009, the city achieved 572 items of major research results, and won eight national awards for science and technology, including one first prize for technological invention and one first prize for scientific and technological progress, and 88 provincial awards for science and technology, including one top prize for science and technology, ten prizes for natural science, five prizes for technological invention and 72 prizes for scientific and technological progress. A total of 2,262 technology contracts were signed, worth 1.42 billion yuan. In 2009, 8,754 patents were applied for and 4,432 were granted, and it was appointed as the first National Technological Innovation Project Pilot City.

  The development of Qingdao’s education is balanced. Qingdao has implemented the balance development project of compulsory education, 15-year universal education project, education-service ability enhancing project, education-care people’s livelihood project and compulsory talent cultivation project. Nine-year compulsory education has been generally provided at elementary and secondary schools in urban and rural areas. Fees of textbooks for students under compulsory education stage and accommodation fees for boarders have been exempted, and free vocational education policy has been gradually carried out in rural areas. The allocation of urban educational resources has been further optimized, the construction of ordinary qualified primary and secondary schools in urban and rural areas, and the adjustment work of rural vocational school distribution have been actively started and construction of Qingdao No. 1 International School has been completed. There are 932 primary schools with 465 thousand students; 305 ordinary high schools with 377 thousand students; 98 secondary vocational schools with 187 thousand students; and 28 universities (including private universities), in which there are 25 ordinary colleges with 269 thousand students. The enrollment rate is 100% for school-age children, and 99% for junior high school. The gross enrollment rate of college and university is about 40%.

  The strategy of increasing the city’s strength through talents is implemented. Qingdao closely combines the import of personnel with the import of projects and the import of capital. The “111” talents introduction project was implemented during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, and a total of 92,500 talents were introduced; the “222” talents introduction project was implemented during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, and a total of 131,200 talents were introduced. In 2009, Qingdao has introduced 34,700 talents with bachelor degree or above, including 374 with PhD degree and 4,006 with master degree, vice-senior title or high technical ability. The plan for introducing high-level overseas talents was launched, 917 returned overseas students were introduced, and one person was included in the “One Thousand Talents Plan” of the central authorities for introducing high-level overseas talents. Five new start-up parks for overseas students were established, and more than 120 overseas students’ enterprises entered the park. A total of 16 postdoctoral research centers, 26 mobile research centers and 18 expert research centers have been established. There are 50 academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering working in Qingdao, 36 persons selected for the “Hundred, Thousand and Ten Thousand Talent Project of the New Century”, 35 outstanding young and middle-age experts of China, 860 enjoying special government allowances granted by the State Council, and 122 outstanding young and middle-age experts of Shandong Province.

  The cultural undertaking is thriving. The construction of Qingdao, a modern coastal cultural city, is accelerated, and a cultural activity center is set up in each sub-district, town and community of the city. The Qingdao Culture Street, Dani Painters’ Village, etc. have become national demonstration bases of cultural industry. Tiny Dust, True Love and other movies won the national “Five-One Project” award. The cable digital TV conversion and high-definition live broadcast have been realized, which improves the digital audio broadcasting capability. The number of various cultural institutions totals 459, of which 40 are movie theaters, 182 cultural centers (stations), 8 museums, 13 public libraries, 14 archives, 12 arts performing groups, one radio station with 12 sets of programs, and one television station with 15 sets of programs. The number of the cable television subscribers reaches 2.42 million, and that of the digital television subscribers reaches 1.68 million; the number of various types of published magazines totals 26.16 million and that of published newspapers totals 780 million copies. Zhongshan Park, Botanical Garden, Public Museums, libraries, galleries, etc. are open for free.

  The health care has been developing healthily. Qingdao is a national pilot city for reforming the urban medical and health system and also a provincial pilot city for integrated health reform. Currently, Qingdao has completed the standardization of the community health service centers and town health centers; both the basic medical insurance and the new cooperative rural medical system have covered 100% of the urban residents and rural residents. Some large comprehensive medical facilities such as the Guoyitang medical center, Maternal & Child Hospital, and Central Hospital have been planned and constructed. All kinds of health institutions (including clinics) in the city total 2,019, including 252 hospitals and health centers, 12 maternal and child health care institutions and 13 disease prevention and control centers. The number of medical beds totals 33,000, including 32,000 beds of hospitals and health centers. The number of medical beds per thousand people reaches 3.9. The natural population growth rate of the city is 1.52‰, and the average life expectancy is 80 years.

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